In , the residence of Porto Alegre and the German-speaking Jesuits became dependent on the German province of the Society of Jesus, while the rest remained directly under the Roman jurisdiction. The information about this period of Jesuit ministry is highly fragmentary and scarce.
There is also a lack of information about the schools they founded. In the nineteenth century, a group of Jesuit-friendly fathers founded in Itu, a region of sugar plantations, a Jesuit-like school. Although recent collections related to the commemorations of the bicentenary of the restoration of the Society of Jesus reintroduced relevant questions for historiographical reflection, they do not provide new information about the activity of the Jesuits in that period.
A review of the literature produced since the third decade of the nineteenth century leads to a series of conclusions. The first is that the greatest historiographical interest is centered on the activity of the Jesuit missionaries in Brazil of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Despite the intense activity that the Jesuits developed in Brazil since the beginning of the twentieth century, including promoting prestigious educational institutions, the attention is almost exclusively placed on the early days of Jesuit activity, as if this was the only relevant period for historiographical investigation.
The second is that the history of the Jesuits of Brazil was, especially since the beginning of the twentieth century, highly territorialized, markedly differentiating two regions of ministry, the north and the south. Although this last region in the strict sense was part of the Spanish domains of the Society of Jesus, it would occupy an important place in the Brazilian production on the Jesuit missionary activity during the twentieth century. Southern region was the scene of intense territorial disputes since the second half of the eighteenth century, such as those triggered by the signing of the Treaty of Madrid In addition, part of the territory of the ancient missions of Paraguay became part of Portuguese-Brazilian territory in , corresponding today to the state of Rio Grande do Sul.
The history of the Jesuit province of Paraguay drew great interest of Emperor Pedro II —91 , who promoted the publication of documents of this area, especially those that corresponded to the expansion of the bandeirantes in the interior and the development of indigenous languages.
As noted, until the expulsion the Portuguese assistance of the Society of Jesus was politically and territorially complex.
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After the restoration, it would no longer be possible to speak of a unified Jesuit history in the Portuguese world. The events that precipitated at the beginning of nineteenth century Napoleonic invasions and the transfer of the Portuguese royal family to Rio de Janeiro produced a crisis in the regimes of representation of spatial and temporal order.
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In the Iberian peninsula, the Jesuits were generally identified with monarchical restoration, which made them object of constant attacks. As late as , the Jesuits were again expelled from the Republic of Portugal, having previously suffered numerous attacks. The situation was different in Brazil, where the academic institutions promoted by the empire gradually valorized the figure of the Jesuits in the foundation of Brazil. The Brazilian Geographical Historical Institute IHGB played a key role in defining the parameters of national past, assigning the Jesuits a privileged place after initial reticence.
Important historians of the institute promoted anti-Jesuit currents. Famous Brazilian historian Francisco Adolfo Varnhagen —78 , author of the General History of Brazil , was one of the contenders. However, the Jesuits were increasingly valorized. Anchieta started to be regarded as a wise and virtuous man, who brought civility to early Brazil, a country that was born from the hands of degraded and dissolute men.
This explains why the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries are widely represented in Jesuit historiography as part of national historiography since then. Until then, only few Jesuit documents were known. In short, Brazilian Jesuit historiography gradually configured an explicit response to Portuguese prevailing anti-Jesuitism, finding its place in the secular academy represented by the IHGB and the universities. This process reached its maturity with the work of the Jesuit Serafim Leite, precursor of more critical Jesuit historiography.
In , Leite organized a pioneering work in three large volumes that contained the letters of the first Jesuits in Brazil, with a critical apparatus of positivist inspiration. Jesuit institutions continued accompanying the growth of secular institutions in the research of Brazilian past. Brazil put at the center the Tupi language, marking a contrast that was not so clear until then. Plinio Ayrosa — became the founder of a Tupi language chair in the twentieth century, following the legacy of the Jesuits as its first systematizers. Something similar can be said about the field of ethnology.
The work is a collection of ten volumes about the activity of the Jesuits in Portuguese America from its establishment until the expulsion of the Society, covering both northern and southern areas. Leite began to publish the collection in , explicitly following positivist criteria of documentary editing. He gathered a large number of documents from the General Archive of the Society of Jesus and other Roman archives, public and private archives of Portugal and Brazil, and as he himself stated, any repository where he was able to find documents referring to the presence and activity of the Society.
Through rigorous research, it seeks to clearly reveal everything in the general line of events. In addition to resettling and fixing the Indians, Jesuits taught them how to work the land regularly. Leite also emphasized the enormous amount of ethnological and linguistic knowledge produced by the Jesuits that could be easily mapped in the indices of their work, which would be organized not according to the periods already established by Portuguese history, but following a chronological, geographical or ideological order, thus producing an autonomous work.
For Capistrano, the Jesuits took distance from bandeirantes and colonizers since the very beginning. In this regard, historiography considers Capistrano de Abreu as a historian that overcome the positivist influence of Varnhagen. In a political situation of the beginning of the twentieth century the work of Leite was very well received by the IHGB.
Such a recognition contributed to forge a new image of the Society of Jesus, overcoming the anti-Jesuitism of mainstream academia. The occasion served as a means to promote the idea that both the Society of Jesus and Brazil were born together in the same civilizing movement. The Jesuits thus became central agents in the foundation of Brazil, obfuscating the presence of older orders such as the Franciscans.
The work of Leite also spread the idea that the Jesuits were pioneers in the defense of the Indians from slavery and exploitation. A vision of the Society of Jesus as a civilizing agent in the formation of Brazil predominated until the s. Such vision established by Leite consolidated in the following decades. However, since the late s, new approaches to the role played by the Jesuits in the colonial period were applied.
Some years later, the work of the anthropologist Luiz Felipe Baeta Neves O combate dos soldados de Cristo na terra dos papagaios came out, proposing an anthropological critique of the process of Christianization of the indigenous peoples. These two works among others of the time mark a new historiographical method, inaugurating a trend of critical studies that has continued up to date.
The creation of the first graduate programs in the humanities and social sciences in Brazil decisively influenced this renewal, covering a wide range of fields from social, economic, and cultural history to psychology and linguistics. From the end of the s and the beginning of the s, several students, mostly lay people, defended numerous theses and published books and articles. The most notorious works belong to the fields of economic and social history, psychology, anthropology, and literature.
Economic history had a continuous production from the s in Brazil, expressed in comprehensive monographs on specific regions or edited books on daily life in the missions and haciendas ranches , and on the context of the expulsion of the Jesuits. Alencastro examined the performance of the Jesuits in Brazil and Angola since the sixteenth century, showing that the position Jesuits adopted in front of indigenous slavery was not isolated from the strategies they promoted for controlling and regulating the trade of African slaves. He questioned the idea that the Jesuits were opposed to slavery and their unrestricted defense of the freedom of the Indians.
These works still serve as important references. Viveiros de Castro explored the basic misunderstandings of the Jesuits in interacting with the Indians and reconstructs the indigenous concepts of identity and otherness. The article constitutes an influential and definitive irruption of ethnological reflection in the field of Jesuit studies.
It also raises a question on the very nature of religious conversion. Other authors addressed the work of the Society of Jesus from broader transdisciplinary frameworks, emphasizing the study of daily life in colleges, residences and houses, evidenced by annual letters and letters of rectors and provincials. Castelnau studied the Brazilian province and the clashes among colonizers, Indians, and authorities, and the relationship with the general government in Rome.
Carlos Zeron studied the juridical categories and the philosophical and political concepts employed in treatises and other texts by the Jesuits in which they justified slavery both of Africans and Indians. In the field of psychology, psychoanalyst Roberto Gambini devoted his works to the Jesuits since the s.
His book O espelho do indio had a significant impact especially after its new edition was published in The writings of Vieira and Anchieta occupied a central place in these studies, which received attention from acclaimed literary critics, such as Adolfo Hansen, Alzir Pecora or Alfredo Bosi. A special mention deserves the scholarship on the Jesuit missions of Paraguay, where Portuguese-speaking literature had and has an important presence. The historiography reviewed so far reveals that the interest in Jesuit activity in Brazil corresponds mostly to the sixteenth, seventeenth, and part of the eighteenth centuries.
The era of expulsion, suppression, and restoration, and in general the nineteenth century, constitutes until now a historiographic terra incognita. Even the empirical reconstruction of this period is fragmentary and full of gaps. But this story did indeed exist, and its fragments are just beginning to be reunited. In this historiographic essay, we have sought to make a chronological bibliographical journey, considering some key moments in the research on the Jesuits in the Portuguese-speaking world.
The first moment corresponds to the nineteenth century, marked by a strong anti-Jesuit bias, which made difficult any research on the activity of the Jesuits in the period of restoration. Most of the historiography was then concentrated on recovering the early past of the Jesuit order, basically in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. The IHGB played a key role in this task, publishing for the first time documents, such as the Jesuit letters and chronicles. With the fall of the Brazilian empire the perception of the history of the Society changed, which increasingly received a positive assessment in the different fora of academic debate.
The second historiographical moment corresponds to the work of the Jesuit Serafim Leite, which, due to its monumentality and the recognition it obtained by the IHGB, transformed a vision of the history of the Society of Jesus as a key element in the national foundation of Brazil. Leite also approached historiography from a more scientific angle, based on data and documents, a method that dominated until the end of the s.
The third moment, beginning in the s, is represented by emerging critical perspectives regarding the role of Jesuit activities. New methodologies influenced by European social intellectual and economic history influenced these perspectives. This intellectual turn, along with the creation of numerous postgraduate courses in the main universities of Brazil, promoted, since the s, a largely non-Jesuit scholarship on the history of the Society of Jesus in Brazil.
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Although the emphasis of this production is chronological, placed in the colonial period, the Jesuits are portrayed as having crucial influence in the contemporary debate on indigenous policies. Despite an increasing interest in the post-restoration period, very little historiography on it has been produced in recent years. The publication of collections and anthologies of sources since points to a growing scholarly attention to this period. Much research, however, still needs to be done in order to have a comprehensive historiographical panorama of the history of the Society of Jesus that returned to the Portuguese-speaking America after the global and local restorations of the order in the nineteenth century.
The Jesuit assistance of Portugal was established in In , Lusitania is divided into two provinces, Goa, and Malabar founded in In , Goa is separated from Japan. In turn, China is separated from Japan in In , the Jesuits arrive in Brazil, where a new province is created in Sick leaves for family care, maternity and other reasons were excluded.
SL were analyzed based on their number which is different from the number of civil servants who fell ill, as one and the same worker could have required more than one SL and the number of missed work days, namely, the total number of missed work days resulting from all the validated leaves. We built two datasets, one with information on all the workers who fell ill at least once in , and the other with the sociodemographic and occupational data of all CHR employees. For the former, we manually extracted data from Medical Examination Reports MER , namely, the official documents issued by medical examiners at the time of visits.
For the other dataset, we extracted data from NUCAF information system on human resources, which records sociodemographic and occupational information for all CHR servants. Independent variables were sex, marital status, educational level, working hours, professional category, area allocation, allocation per healthcare level, age, and time in the job.
Some variables were clustered before analysis. Professional category was distributed across six groups: management managers, administrative technicians, etc.
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Variable area allocation was categorized in nine groups: management management, office, logistic areas , outpatient outpatient clinics, epidemiological surveillance, etc. The categories were defined considering similarities in the organizational environment, type of exposure to occupational hazards and tasks performed.
The second dataset included information on SL corresponding to the employees included in the first dataset, who were identified based on their ID number. The result was a single database with information on sociodemographic and occupational data, and SL of all CHR employees.
Indicators were selected according to the recommendations made by the Permanent Commission and International Association on Occupational Health 14 , as well as the ones by Hensing et al. The sickness absence indicators were defined based on the following criteria: number of SL, number of employees granted SL, and number of missed work days due to SL, and were calculated by means of the following equations:.
Next we performed descriptive analysis, which included distribution of the absolute and relative frequencies of granted sick leaves and missed work days due to SL, and calculation of the sickness absence indicators. The study was approved by the research ethics committee of School of Health Sciences, University of Brasilia, ruling no. The total number of civil servants at CHR was 2, in The data relative to the sociodemographic characteristics of the analyzed population are described in Table 1. Analysis evidenced predominance of women In regard to the occupational profile, the largest proportion was of nursing assistants Along the analyzed period, 2, SL were granted, corresponding to employees and 40, missed work days.
The obtained data were used to calculate the overall indicators of sickness absence for CHR. More than one SL could be granted to one and the same employee, which is evidenced by the leave frequency index. The results showed 88 SL per employees. According to the severity index, the number of missed work days per employee was Calculation of the length of sickness absence indicated 42 missed work days per employee, on average, and the average length of SL was 18 missed work days per SL. The results of the analyzed indicators described in Tables 1 and 2 allow estimating the magnitude of sickness absence stratified according to several variables.
PSA was higher among women Similarly, the values for all the other indicators were higher for the women and employees aged 51 or older. Clear difference was found as a function of professional category. The values of the analyzed indicators were higher for nursing assistants, LFI in particular, The employees who worked 20 h per week exhibited the lowest values for all the analyzed indicators, except for ALL Table 2.
As Table 3 shows, more than half of the analyzed population The number of SL varied from 1 to About As Table 4 shows, the distribution of SL per ICD code evidenced mental and behavioral disorders as the most frequent clinical reason for SL among the civil servants from both sexes women: The second most frequent cause was diseases of the musculoskeletal system and connective tissue women: Analysis of ALL per sex showed that the number of missed work days was higher for the men 20 days , especially due to diseases of the nervous system 40 days and mental disorders 30 days.
Analysis further showed that mental disorders and musculoskeletal diseases were the main cause of illness for all professional categories. In the present study, we analyzed a set of official data widely representative of all professional categories of civil servants allocated to a Health Region in the Federal District. Planning health actions demands accurate knowledge of the characteristics of this population of workers. The results of the present study provide information on indicators of sickness absence and the sociodemographic and occupational profile of civil servants for the analyzed period.
A SI of 16 days points to considerable impact of sickness absence. Similar values were reported for public health services in Campinas, Brazil 15 days 3 and Canada LSA of 42 missed work days per employee denotes the individual burden of disease. ALL, which in the present study was 18 days, is a significant indicator of the severity of diseases. Based on the overall results of the analyzed indicators, and excluding SL shorter than 4 days and leaves due to reasons other than disease — which were not assessed in the present study — we might assert that CHR operates with an extremely low number of effective employees.
This situation impairs the administrative, technical and operational functioning of healthcare facilities, with direct impact on the quality of the health care provided to the population. Analysis of the several studies selected for the purpose of comparison evidenced lack of standardization in measurements, as well in the nomenclature of the sickness absence indicators used. We had to perform comparisons cautiously, because different terms were attributed to one and the same measurement, there was variation in how calculations were made, and some studies did not indicate the cutoff points for inclusion of SL in analysis There is no consensus on the ideal values for each sickness absence indicator Then, the complex and highly diversified situation of the public sector further hinders comparisons of indicators among services.
Therefore, one should consider the actual situation and profile of each institution before attempting external comparisons. In the present study, the proportion and frequency of SL were higher among the women, while they lasted longer among the men. These findings agree with the results of other studies, in which also the frequency of SL was higher among women and their length longer among men 1,12,,20, Several factors might account for the higher rates of illness among women, especially the ones associated with gender issues.
Anatomical and physiological differences, diseases affecting women exclusively — such as the ones related to childbirth, puerperium and the menstrual cycle, and lack of rest at home might be associated with the higher rates of illness among women. The values of all the analyzed sickness absence indicators, except for LFI, pointed to age range 51 years old and older as the most vulnerable. Similar results were reported by Capelari et al. This might be a case of overlapping of effects, to wit, combination of the natural aging of the body with cumulative exposure to hazards inherent to the work environment and work processes We call the attention to the fact that the public health services in Federal District follow the overall trend of evolution or involution of the labor relations in Brazil in recent years.
The result of this process is the permanence of older workers in services, who are almost always overloaded as a function of a disproportionate distribution of the work demands. Higher frequency and high values of sickness absence indicators among nursing assistants were widely reported in Brazilian and international studies 1,3,16,22,25, Nursing assistants and technicians are at the front line of work in health care. They are exposed to several occupational and psychosocial hazards, and are almost always overloaded as a function of the high demand of care at SUS facilities, the need to accomplish several functions, lack of input and time to plan activities, and intensive and exhausting pace of work.
These factors might explain the higher rates of illness found among this professional category. The higher frequency and proportion of SL among civil servants working 40 h per week agrees with the findings reported in other studies 27, This result might be associated with fatigue resulting from long working hours, sometimes in shift regimen, which impair the quality of sleep and increase stress, eventually affecting the physical health of workers. Then, employees who work shorter weekly hours have more time to care for then own health, and thus require SL less often.
A possible reason is that in such work environments workers are constantly exposed to stress situations, suffering, death and accidents. In addition, also the working conditions are hard in this setting, including long working hours, weekend and night shifts, heavy and repetitive manual activities, and low number of workers, among other problems which might cause physical and emotional exhaustion Independently from the disease that led to SL, the results of the present study show that